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Research meeting on Indian Architecture
Bolkhari:"Hindu texts needed to recognize Indian architecture"
15 Jun 2012 - 17:10
A research meeting on Architecture amongst the meeting series of the Cultural Week of India was held at Iranian Artists Home. At the meeting, Hassan Bolkhari reminded that architectural monuments in India have been made to express a prominent and transcendent concept, and considered familiarity with Hindu texts as a significant requirement in recognizing Indian architecture.
IBNA: The research meeting on Architecture following the meeting series of the Cultural Week of India and Islamic Republic of Iran attended by Hassan Bolkhari and Mohammad Reza Pour jafar as lecturers and Mehrangiz Mazaheri as the meeting secretary was held at Amir khani Hall of Iranian Artists Home, at 14:00 pm, on Saturday, June 9.
Bolkhari whose lecture topic was: "Wisdom of Indian architecture" emphasized at first on the point that architecture is different from building and then said: The wisdom of architecture has three spheres: shelter nature, building, and architecture that in the sphere of architecture meaning is ahead of function.
He added: talking about architecture we should know that at first the important category amid the spheres is meaning and then the form and architectural monuments are built up to imply a sublime conception in the minds. Of course, this does not mean that the concept of function is not important in Indian architecture.
The faculty member of Tehran University referring then to the importance of sacred concepts in the architecture of India said: in Hinduism, sacred concepts shape architecture in the visual forms and then make them; accordingly to recognize Indian architecture, Hindu texts and resources are required.
The author of "Wisdom, Art and Beauty" then referred to the Hindu religious resources and said: Vedic era in India begins with the Aryans. The main wisdom resources of Indian Vedas include four books: "The Vedas", "Rig Veda" or the prayer book, "Yajur Veda," or the worshippers' book, "Sama Veda" or the songs books, and "Atharva Veda". Among these resources Rig Veda is the most important.
Bolkhari said: Rig Veda has been interpreted in three phases; the third one is "Upanishads", which is the main resource of Hindu wisdom and is considered indeed as the philosophical section of Vedas. "Brahmana" is also part of Vedas which contains sacrificing commands. "Vastu Shastra "or "science of construction" is also a subset of these sections that is knowledge within the scope of the architecture that has been received in the "Vedas" through the inspiration and has been written down between eight to ten thousand years ago. Vastu changes the main principles of architectural wisdom into architectural forms.
The author of "Hidden Secrets of a Flower" said that geometrical laws of Buddha body dominate on Buddhist architectural rules, specifically on stupas and explained: sacred forms are by no means created or made in architecture; rather each one has an inspiration source and is appeared to human by Gods.
M.R. Pour Jafar was another speaker at the conference who addressed the theme of "Indian and Iranian Common Architectural Features ". He referred at first to the art and architecture in the two pre-Aryan civilizations of India called Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Then giving a historical background about Hinduism and the Indian temples architecture he said: in the different periods of Buddhist Art, a flower called "Lotus" has always been highly honorable symbol in the Hindu temples; and this is highly similar to the Lotus flower observed in Takhte jamshid (Persepolis).
He added: many motifs used in Afghanistan's Bamiyan Valley, which was considered among the Buddhist civilization, are very similar to the works of Achaemenid art and architecture.
Author of "Church Architecture" continued: Achaemenid architecture in Iran has highly influenced on the architecture of "Muriyan dynasty" in India, as an example of such effects the Four Lions capital of Ashoka Palace can be pointed out. Under the influence of and inspired by Achaemenid inscriptions, Ashoka ordered to engrave his commands on the stones and columns in the caves. His Stone inscriptions, Column inscriptions and Cave Engravings have remained in over thirty places in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan as well.
The faculty member of Tarbiyat Modarres University said that there are some similarities also between Persian and Indian architecture during Ashkanid and Sassanid dynasties and explained: it should be said that the most impacts on the Indian architecture has come from the Islamic era and numerous monuments can be pointed out as examples in this regard.
The most famous buildings and monuments of this kind are "Delhi Mosque" and "Taj Mahal".The Tomb of King Humayun in Delhi is also architecturally very similar to the dome and building of "Soltanieh" in Zanjan.
Pour Jafar continued: numerous reasons can be offered to explain the existing similarities between Iranian-Islamic and Indian architecture that in my opinion, the most important reasons are "presence of Iranian master architects in India", "similar architectural terms and expressions between Persian and Hindi languages"," intermarried between Indian kings and upper classes with Iranians and the presence of Iranian programmer brides in India," "presence of Iranian artists, scholars ,poets and Literati in India" ,"presence of Persian politicians in India" and "the pre-Islamic communication of Persian civilizations with of Hindi ones» .
After that, Pour Jafari introduced Indian different historical periods while showing slides along with giving examples of each period's architecture and then he compared these buildings with the building of Iranian architecture to show their common features.
The research meeting on Architecture amongst the meeting series of India and IRI Cultural Week and attended by Hassan Bolkhari with the article "The Wisdom of Indian Architecture" and M.R. Pour Jafar with the article "India and Iranian Common Architectural Features" was held in Amir khani hall of Iranian Artists Home , at 14:00 pm, on Saturday June 9.